***WE DID IT!***
Many thanks to each of you who donated to NAPPA’s matching fund effort to help Houston Mini Pig Rescue & Network. We just received a contribution of $20, making our total received $1500. Doubled that will give HMPRN $3,000 to use for food or other needs as they work to recover. We wish to extend special thanks to Joyce Aleckna of Happy Hill Farm and Animal Refuge for sending $700. We are equally grateful to Sharyn Meryl (Sammy the Hammy’s mom) for raising $600 from her raffle. Last ,but not least, we very much appreciate those smaller donors who made up the remainder, giving us a total of $3,000 to send to Texas!

North American Pet Pig Association

Joyce Murdoch Aleckna Thank you for making the match so the money will make a difference for Houston

Patty Hunter Amazing! You all are such a blessing to us down here in Houston! ❤

Thank you all!

Apology from PAL

Upon the advise of our respective attorneys, the Board of Directors from the Pig Advocates League and from The North American Pet Pig Association have reached a legally signed settlement. All funds have been returned to NAPPA, and PAL has signed the following statement.

To the Pig Community:

Thank you for your continued support and interest in preserving and protecting pet pigs. Over the past several months, you may have become aware of a disagreement that arose regarding the governance of North American Pet Pig Association (NAPPA), which caused some of NAPPA’s directors to separate from NAPPA and form Pig Advocates League (PAL). Regrettably, the disagreement became public and many hurtful and disparaging comments were made regarding NAPPA and its officers and directors. We regret such comments and any harm they caused. While we cannot undo what has been done, we can learn from our mistakes and move forward in a positive and constructive manner.

After much discussion and thoughtful consideration, we have decided to resolve our disagreement and completely part ways with NAPPA. Both NAPPA and PAL will continue their efforts in support of pet pigs. We ask that you respect our decision and continue to support pet pigs and the organizations that support them.


Dianna Ciampaglione
Anna Key
Heather Knox
Brittany Sawyer

29 Years and Still Growing

Entering it’s 29th year in existence, NAPPA continues to grow. Recently NAPPA has gone through some growing pains and has made some internal changes. We wish to welcome the new board members and thank all those for stepping up to ensure NAPPA can carry on it’s mission and goals, while best serving it’s members.
Moving Forward: The North American Potbellied Pig Association was established in 1989 to preserve and protect “Potbellied Pigs”. We are now expanding our mission to include all pet pigs”.
NAPPA’s new name is: North American Pet Pig Association”. It is still “NAPPA” and the website is the same:””. We will always keep our original logo out of respect for and in honor of potbellied pigs because after all they started the pet pig movement thirty years ago.

NAPPA as a service organization continues to move forward.
NAPPA will continue to “preserve and protect” all pet pigs.
NAPPA will continue to provide educational information and assistance while concentrating it’s efforts toward the betterment of all pet pigs.

Moving Forward

The North American Potbellied Pig Association was established in 1989 to preserve and protect “Potbellied Pigs”. We are now expanding our mission to include all pet pigs”.

NAPPA’s new name is: “North American Pet Pig Association“.   It is still “NAPPA” and the website is the same: “”.  We will always keep our original logo out of respect for and in honor of potbellied pigs because, after all, they started the pet pig movement thirty years ago.

  • NAPPA as a service organization continues to move forward.
  • NAPPA will continue to “preserve and protect” all pet pigs.
  • NAPPA will continue to provide educational information and assistance while concentrating it’s efforts toward the betterment of all pet pigs.

Smaller pigs doesn’t always mean they’re better

How do you handle irresponsible stories about pet pigs? You educate. Recently, we were made aware of a story that aired on Fox news as well as shared to their many Facebook page feeds and added to their website. Naturally this story glamorized pigs and how small they stayed, the usual myths that are tossed around by uneducated people. I don’t blame Fox news entirely, but I do place some of the blame on them for not checking facts before airing such a ridiculous story. Despite the wealth of information available to people, unfortunately, they will believe what they want to believe. They will take bits and pieces from different websites and groups and come up with their own conclusion about pigs and this mythical micro pig. They likely didn’t mean to cause a riot, but I know I reached out to them privately as did several of my friends when we were alerted to this story. Thankfully, the news has reached out to several rescues and will be doing a story on the unwanted pigs across the US to counter the inaccurate story they already did. It is stories like this that cause a surge of people to run out and get a pig on a whim. We are the ones left to network and find homes in a few months, once the novelty wears off. Rescues do not have any more room for any more pigs. People do not have any more room in their homes for any more pigs. Shelters aren’t equipped to handle pigs, craigslist isn’t a place that I would ever suggest a person to try and rehome their pig on. It has gotten so out of control, and this is only February, the pigs that were bought as Christmas gifts are about to start being rehomed in the next month or so too….stories like this do not help the already overpopulated pig problem. If you are considering getting a pig for you and your family, please go check out a pig rescue. Volunteer for a day. Get to see firsthand what having a pig is like. You may even see the big ball of fun that was destined to live with you right there at that rescue. But, don’t believe the lies. Trust your science community who have come up with actual breeds of pigs. Trust your universities who have done extensive research to be sure you are fully informed about what you are getting yourself in to. Trust the pig rescues that bring these unwanted/unloved pigs to their homes when they “grow too big” or are much different than what these people expected when they brought these pigs home. (Click here to see a list of pig rescues all over the world) These are the people who KNOW the truth and have evidence to support their way of thinking.

Anyone in pig world knows there is NO breed called teacup or micro or micro-mini. These terms are used to market these pigs and often mislead people into thinking they’re getting something that they aren’t. They’re going to end up disappointed with what they find several years later, especially if they have unrealistic expectations. If you were to buy a BMW car only to find out in 5 years that it was a mini-van, you would probably be quite disappointed. Essentially telling people that these pigs will stay piglet size is doing just that. While we understand there are a few pigs out there that have stayed relatively small, they are the exception and not the rule. Let me add, the overall well-being of these pigs is also in question, especially after hearing the “expert” on the segment refer to these pigs as micro pigs, and the fact that you can see their bone structure indicates to me that they should weigh more than they do.

If the weight of a pet is the most important factor when choosing what type you want to add to your family, then you should reconsider getting a pig. Pigs come in all shapes and sizes. Some are tall, some are long, others are short. Some pigs are fat, some are healthy and some are, simply put, starved.

Signs that a pig may be starving?
-Head is to large for their body
-Sunken (hallow) eyes
-Gap under their chin (if you run your hand under their chin you will feel an indentation)
-Low energy (no zoomies)
-Pigmentation of their skin is off
-Legs tend to bow
-Resting their head on objects *this was a huge thing for me as that made me think, wait, MY pig does that!
-Hair is thinner and rougher
-Hair doesnt lie flat
-Staggered gait or unsteady gait
-Poor skin and coat
-Pigs can also get super hairy when they’re underweight too because the body is trying to compensate for the lack of body fat as well. So lack of hair or a lot of hair, both can point to a pig being underweight.
-Some pigs gait is affected by the malnourishment and they’re not able to walk straight, often falling or they have a walking disorder such as goose-stepping due to vitamin/nutritional deficiencies, some can’t walk at all
-Eyes may have a glazed look or have a sadness to them
-Backbone tends to curve upwards leaving a hunched-over stance
-Bones visible through the skin. You should not be able to identify the skeletal structure from looking at a pig

These aren’t the only signs, but these are clear identifiable signs that a pig is being starved. Starving pigs is a cruel way to stunt the growth. They may not show immediate signs of being starved, but eventually they will. There are no healthy, fully mature pigs under 50 pounds that I am aware of to date. There are no breeders that can consistently produce pigs that stay small. There may be breeders who claim they do, they may even have a pig or two that have a smaller stature and that is typically what they focus on…those particular pigs. Do you know why people with these smaller pigs are discussed with such passion from those in the pig community? Because the pigs do NOT look healthy. I don’t care what your vet has said, I don’t care what you might think, when you can see the bones in the face, that pig is starved. Most pigs that are moderately starved will start to have behavioral issues, attacking or acting aggressive due to not getting enough to eat. This is a fairly common reaction. People who have to fight for food are the same, they’ll do whatever they can in order to secure nourishment for their body. Some of these pigs are so starved, I highly doubt they have the energy to attack anyone.

Are smaller pigs somehow better than bigger pigs? I don’t think so. Having a pig that is smaller can certainly have its’ benefits, but an angry and sad starving pig? I just don’t see the glamour in that. Having a small pig isn’t worth the toll it takes on my pigs body. There is a huge gray area where body scoring is concerned. Fat pigs aren’t any fun either, but a fat pig at least has the joy of eating, obviously these starving pigs have been denied that pleasure. When a pig doesn’t get the appropriate amount of nutrition, there is a domino effect. The body can’t grow like its supposed to leaving growth that is significantly stunted. The bones need nutrients found in correct amounts of feed, when this is not being given, these bones are weak and can become easily deformed. Sometimes these bones aren’t strong enough to support the weight or begin to bow leaving disfigured legs or backbones and taking the ability to walk away from these pigs. These pigs suffer from broken bones or easily fracture their extremities. The lack of proper nutrition also takes a toll on the lymphatic system rendering the immune system worthless. These pigs will likely get sick often or won’t be able to fight off common viruses or bacteria that other pigs can carry and never suffer effects from. These same illnesses can claim the life of starved pigs. The organs contained within the pigs body rely on nutrition to help them perform their duties within the body and although they will take the nutrients they can get, eventually, the capacity to function as they’re supposed to will diminish.

Starvation is one of the most deadly conditions on the planet; according to some studies, the effects of starvation play a major role in between one-third and one-half of all worldwide deaths of children under the age of five. The same rule applies to pigs. By depriving the body of nutrition, starvation slowly allows the body to devour its own reserves, including muscle, fat, and organs, up to the point of complete system shut-down and death. Understanding how starvation affects the body is important to recognizing the signs of malnutrition and preventing a growing nutrition-based problem from worsening beyond repair.
The body is an effective storage device for fats, nutrients, and other important components. These stores are regulated by nutrition in the form of food, beverages, and vitamin and mineral supplements. When lack of nutrition occurs, the body quite quickly turns to stored reserves, beginning with glycogen, in order to keep vital functions up to par. As the body begins to devour more and more stored components to keep running, the physical effects of starvation become apparent.

One of the first effects of starvation to occur is a drop in metabolism. In order to maximize efficiency, the body protects its insulating fat stores by consuming muscle stores instead, using these reserves to make up for the lack of calorie intake. Dropping metabolism can lead to feelings of fatigue, decreased capacity for activity, and mental sluggishness. This often results in staggering gait or neuro-like symptoms as well. This is sometimes visible early on, but sometimes the long term effects are not immediately identified.

Since the body is busy keeping vital systems going, many non-vital functions slow or cease. Hormone production is often disrupted, Intact pigs may stop menstruating entirely, or experience erratic heat cycles. Malnutrition and starvation, therefore, can have serious developmental effects, even after recovery (if this is rectified), as normal hormonal functions may be temporarily or permanently thrown off track.

The effects of starvation on the brain cause a lack of concentration, loss of motor skills, and increased likelihood of anxiety and depression. As the condition progresses, brain function decreases, leaving the victim, in this case, a pig, in a state of fatigue or torpor. Apathy continues to increase, until the pig may no longer be able to attempt to find food or survive.

Initial weight loss will quickly turn to emaciation because of the effects of starvation. The limbs become extremely thin as muscle and fat stores are depleted, while the eyes and face begin to appear sunken. Lack of vital proteins can lead to the loss of hair, poor skin condition or development of edemas, which appear as large swollen areas. The stomach may protrude enormously, as part of a syndrome known as kwashiorkor. This can present as a bloated belly and even mimic the appearance of a large belly in general. (See the video below for examples)

Starvation is frequently a result of uneducated people who have chosen to do this on purpose, but there have been times people have been told to feed extremely restricted diets by the very person who told them there was such a thing as a “micro” pig. While the effects can often be reversed up to a point, acute starvation can cause serious organ damage and often leads to long-term health conditions including cardiovascular problems. If a pig, particularly a piglet, is exhibiting signs of starvation, it is important to try and intervene. Perhaps this person doesn’t know the long term effects of malnutrition? Maybe they do and have chosen this as a way to attempt to keep a pig at a particular size, but that is called abuse. Unattended, starvation leads inexorably towards death. Not necessarily immediate death, but the effects from long term starvation WILL ultimately lead to death. Educate, educate, educate. Anything can be said tactfully without a hostile undertone. There may even be circumstances you’re not aware of, such as a pig being recently rescued from horrific situations, so be sure to ask and not accuse if you are truly trying to help.

Starving pigs is causing psychological harm, although the degree of severity can be hard to truly determine. A pig trusts its human caretaker. By taking away the one things pigs love…food…essentially you have robbed them of their one achievable desire. What kinds of psychological harm do animals suffer?
Rejecting: an active refusal to provide emotional support
Terrorizing: the creation of a “climate of fear” or an unpredictable threat or hostility, preventing the victim from experiencing a sense of security.
Taunting: teasing, provoking, harassing.
Isolating: active prevention of social interactions and companionship.
Abandonment: desertion and termination of care.
Over-pressuring: placing excessive demands or pressure to perform and achieve.

Starving a pig can fall into many of these categories. It may not be based on the descriptions above, but terrorizing and taunting comes to mind right off the bat. Knowingly limiting the amount of food your pig is able to eat in a way to “keep your pig small” is not only ignorant, but also abuse.

​Here are a few pictures of pigs that were starved.

JackJack_Gretchen Schlueter Kendall
This is Jack Jack before and after. How can anyone ever think this was a healthy pig?

K Wilson

Katherine Wilson-after
This is Oscar’s before and after pictures who was thankfully saved by Katherine Wilson.

Screen Shot 2016-02-26 at 1.28.59 PM
Frankie is a special pig who was thankfully rescued!

Screen Shot 2016-02-26 at 1.30.13 PM
These pigs came from a pig rescue that is no longer around. They are now at a great rescue and thriving in their new happy/healthy lives!

This is sweet Sophie. Sophie was starved and forced to live in a bathtub her entire life. Poor Sophie was not able to survive her injuries and passed away. The sad part is that her former owners didn’t see a problem. She was not only severely malnourished, but also suffered multiple fractures from attempting to jump out of the bathtub she was forced to live in.

Screen Shot 2016-02-26 at 1.32.23 PM
These charts are NOT intended for piglets, but more for pigs over a year old…however, if your pig is a number 1, your pig needs to gain some weight regardless of the age. STOP STARVING PIGS TO KEEP THEM SMALL!!!!!! You will never get respect for abusing your pig, not from us or any respectable organization that actually cares about pigs. Big pigs are beautiful. There are no recognized breeds named teacup or micro. Check out the links below to see the sources, they are universities and the science community’s research studies. These are credible resources, not just some person who said so. Don’t let your selfish desires outweigh the needs of a pig. Many are simply not equipped or prepared to bring one home and do so anyways.
Additional helpful links:
Realistic sizes of pigs from real owners
Guide to nutrition

NAPPA does NOT support, endorse or condone anyone that starves a pig in an attempt to keep a pig small. This is not only cruel, but also abuse. Do NOT restrict feed to try and limit your pigs ability to grow. This will always have a negative outcome.

History of the Potbellied Pigs


cute pig NAPPAMost of us know that the potbellied pig in America today, can be traced back to Keith Connell’s import to the US from Canada (originally for zoos) in the mid-eighties. By today’s standards they were relatively large (60 to 80 kg), all black, wrinkled, particularly about the head and face with the other characteristics we associate with the “breeder”, usually referred to as the foundation stock. Keith named them the “Con Line”.

However, shortly after the original importation, at least two other “breed types” were brought into U.S., the Lea Line” imported by Leavitt (gentle disposition, white and black markings,somewhat smaller) and the O’Royal LineO, imported by Espberger (mostly white, somewhat larger than the Lea Line).

In fact, these pigs, Con, Lea and Royal represent most of the foundation stock found in America today.

The different lines provide a larger gene pool to work with, give us a healthier breed type and enable breeders to develop more desirable characteristics (size, disposition, color, confirmation, etc) better suited for domesticated companion “House Pets”.

The question is… Why is there such a wide variety of breed types in the first place?. To answer the question, we must first understand the origin of the species.

Taxonomy- The potbellied pig is a direct descendent of the old world wild pig family. Order (Artiodactyla), Suborder (Suins),Family (Suidae), Genus(Sus Scrofa) the wild boar.

Range-Spread across Eurasia, for over 40,000 years, they range from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast, and from the Mediterranean to as far North as the fringe of Siberia. The variety of habitat combined with the adaptability of this omnivorous (but mostly vegetarian) mammal has produced a wide variety of species which share many common traits (nesting, hair, spiked ears, etc).

Potbellied Pigs- The potbellied pigs we share our homes and lives with, is generally associated with South East Asia and, in particular, Vietnam. It is technically not a breed(“a group of animals that have been selected by man to possess a uniform appearance that is inheritable and distinguishes it from other groups of animals within same species”), but a “local type”(generally indigenous to an area). The variety we see in America today is probably the results of the cross-breeding of four “local types” of Vietnamese pigs. They share many common characteristics (pointed ears, sway back, straight tail, pot belly, size and gentle disposition) and originate in different parts of Vietnam.

North Vietnam- The OiO (The shortest breed type name in the world) is found in the West near the Red River Delta. It is the type most common in Vietnam and the pig known as the Vietnamese potbellied pig….the original “Con Line”. A larger pig (up to 90Kg) but still very small compared with domestic pigs. Its black skin is wrinkled, particularly about the head with a dished face, narrow forehead and small upright ears.

The OMong CaiO is found in the Northeast near the Chinese border and Gulf of Tongkine. It is slightly larger than the “i” (100kg) with more hair, white with black head, white snout(sometimes a white star) and black patches elsewhere on the body (sometimes with saddle markings). This general appearance is associated with the Lea Line”.

Central Vietnam: The “co” is very small (up to 40kg)pig . Originally wide-spread in central Vietnam, it is now restricted to the high plateau region. With a cubby body type (short) and more of a slope than sway to its back, it is obvious that this breed type has greatly influenced our “American” potbellied pigs.

South Vietnam: The “Heo Moi” sometimes referred to as the Vietnamese primitive , originally roamed the mountain area on the South. Also very small (40-45 kg), they were sway backed with hanging stomachs and a longer snout. Today, mainly in the rich Mekong delta, they have been bred to be larger (60kg) but still possess veracity and many characteristics of their free-range mountain kin. Here too we see many of their traits in our American “breed types”.

What to Look For: When looking for a pet, or going to a show, or just enjoying your own pet pig, see if you can spot the unique characteristics of the I, Mong Cai, Co, and Heo Moi breed types. Our judges are looking for a blending of many traits. All of us are looking for healthy, happy pets.

Written by Richard Magidson, Ross Mill Farm Rushland, PA.
Used with permission from Susan Magidson.

Move The Pig – To A Better Relationship

Lydia Weaver has long been an advocate for pigs and has worked very hard to help people keep pigs in their home environment through education. She authored the “Move The Pig” method to establish a healthy, abuse free relationship with pigs and prevent re homing from aggression issues. She just released Part 1 of a video series that outlines the principle, and has graciously allowed us to share her article here. Thank you Lydia!

“Move The Pig”
Written by Lydia Weaver.
Copyright 2014 by Lydia Weaver
Sharing and posting of this file for informational purposes is welcomed.
No commercial purpose may be made of this file without the express written permission of the author.

Teaching our pigs to move when and where we ask is just like teaching any other behavior we want. Our goal should be to break the exercise down into tiny pieces the pig can absorb, then once he grasps the basic concept we work toward putting the pieces together to shape the behavior further. To put this in relatable terms it’s very similar to teaching a child her ABCs. When that task is mastered, she can move on to writing words, then sentences, then paragraphs. We teach small steps, then string them together to complete a task.

This first set of instructions is geared toward the pig that simply needs to learn to move for us, as well as her owner, who needs to learn to move her confidently. For a pig that has already established unwanted behaviors, like head swiping or biting, we make just a couple of adjustments, which I will outline later.

This is all perfectly natural for a pig; as a herd animal he innately understands that moving when asked is conceding power to you. That is instinctive; it’s pig herd language 101. What we’re doing is connecting a
natural and very desired behavior to specific cues or signals so that we can calmly use that behavior to our advantage in a variety of situations we are undoubtedly going to encounter as pig owners. This is NOT showing him who’s boss, being top hog or being alpha pig. This is simply leading our pigs in a direction they can understand and in which we want or need for them to go.

First and foremost, it is essential that we begin teaching any behavior in a calm environment. While MTP is extremely effective in preventing and changing unwanted behavior, like biting or head swiping, we sure don’t want to try MTP for the first time right after any altercation with the pig. Trying to do this is akin to having an elementary school student take an English test right after having a heated argument or fight on the playground. His mind is not receptive to processing anything new in that moment.

Choose instead a calm time and place when both of you are relaxed. In the beginning we’re going to give several very clear signals or cues to alert the pig that something should be happening. She won’t understand what they mean at first, but that’s expected. We’ll make it clear to her very quickly. As we advance in teaching this and she understands more of what we want, we can refine the signals and ask for more effort from her.

So the pig is chilled, maybe having a nap, maybe just snuffling about doing piggy things. The first thing I want to do is to increase my presence and energy. Instead of just puttering about, I’m going to step toward him with authority, even thudding my feet a bit heavily. Then I give a verbal signal. Choose one that you can live with because you’ll use it often with this program. I say “come on, let’s go, let’s go!” in an authoritative voice. It does not need to be a yell or shout, but it does need to impart a sense of urgency, like you don’t have all day to wait, because you don’t. When you ask for movement, for it to be effective, it needs to happen immediately. I also will clap my hands or give a clucking sound, like someone urging a horse into a trot. I have no idea how to spell that sound, so I’ll go for the description, instead. J

So count those up: feet, voice, clap and/or cluck. That’s three, possibly four strong signals if you use them all, which alert the pig that something should be happening. She doesn’t have a clue what that is yet, but by the time you take several animated, marching-type steps to get to her, she’s on alert, and may well have stood up if she was previously lying down. This is great, it’s what we want. If she happens to move away a couple of steps, you can stop there. If not, you add another cue for her. Keep encouraging her with your previous signals, and walk firmly into her bubble, her personal space. If she does not move away, step right into her, being careful not to trip over the pig. She will likely give a squeal or grunt of surprise and jump away.

As soon as he moves even a step or two away from you, immediately stop your movement and stop your signals. Make it very defined, like someone unexpectedly pulled the plug on your power source. Tell him “good” or “good boy” so he has a verbal affirmation that he did what you wanted. Take a deep breath and blow it out.

When you stop, you release the pressure you were applying to have her move. She does not learn to move from the pressure you’re applying, she learns from you releasing that pressure the instant she does what you want. The pressure is to create the movement, but the release of pressure is the reward. She will repeat what she gets rewarded for. We want her to come to the conclusion that “OH! When I move my feet, she stops!”

If your pig is one of the more dominant types that has begun or even has firmly established dangerous behaviors like biting or head swiping, we simply add a sorting board to our tool box for safety. The steps to move him are identical, with the exception that you’ll be holding the sorting board between yourself and the pig. In that type of pig, you’re much more likely to get a reaction instead of action. He may well swing around and confront you when you get into his space, and in that case you would simply keep the sorting board between you and his head, and
carry on. As you step, you’ll bump-bump-bump into him with every step. If he resists, and he probably will, it is perfectly permissible to increase the pressure until you get the desired effect. If we stay static at the same level of pressure he’s resisting, we actually teach him to resist to that level and even a step above it. If we increase the pressure onward and upward, we will eventually find the spot where he decides the payoff for unwanted behavior is not worth the effort. So if bump-bump-bump does not get immediate results, you go to bump-Bump-BUMP. If he’s still in the naughty zone, banging his noggin’ on that sorting board, you step it up to BUMP-BUMP-BUMP. We need to leave no doubt that we expect him to move and move now.

Then just as with the more docile, calmer pig, the moment she backs up a step or two, or even turns, we stop and give our verbal approval by telling her “good” or “good girl”. Remember, the cessation of pressure is what tells her she did what we want, so just like we expect an immediate response from her when we ask for movement, so we absolutely must give an immediate response when she does what we wanted. This is an exercise in accountability, where ours is even more important than hers.

Once he’s moved and you’ve released the pressure, you can then invite him back into your space. This is important, for as much as we want to have a sensitive pig that moves when we ask, we also want a relaxed pig. If all we do is move-move-move they can become overly sensitive and jumpy. We want to make very clear distinctions between now we’re moving, and now we’re not. We do this by inviting that pig back to our space for a quick rub or scratch after the moving exercises, then walk off and go about our normal business. You don’t have to invite them in with every single move, but you do need to do it often. We constantly strive to find the balance between sensitizing them (moving) and desensitizing them (inviting them back to us for a rub). Those are two sides of the same well-rounded pig.

We lather, rinse and repeat this maneuver several times a day specifically to teach them that any time and any place we ask them to move, they need to do it. How often depends on the pig. In the beginning, we want to repeat it enough that it becomes automatic, the pig moves when we ask, then calmly comes back to us when we’re finished with the exercise. A very light, responsive, naturally submissive pig won’t need nearly as much as a pushy, dominant pig, or a pig that has already established unwanted behaviors that need to change.

As we advance in teaching this maneuver we will add another step or two, then another. Just like any behavior we teach, there’s a learning curve, not just for the pig, but for the human as well. With practice we can learn to vary our speed, direction, and intensity. We will also refine the signals we give. While we start out with exaggerated step/voice/clap/cluck, in time we shift the cues to be lighter and more subtle. Eventually, we can simply walk into his space and he will move respectfully and easily out of our path.